Perspektiva študentov zdravstvene nege do istospolno usmerjenih

opisna raziskava

Ključne besede: študenti zdravstvene nege, znanje, stališča, homoseksualnost, kulturne kompetence

Povzetek

Uvod: Istospolno usmerjeni posamezniki še danes znotraj zdravstvenega sistema večinoma niso nakopravno obravnavani. Namen raziskave je bil prepoznati znanja študentov zdravstvene nege o istospolno usmerjenih in stališča do njih.
Metode: V opisni neeksperimentalni kvantitativni raziskavi sta bili uporabljeni v slovenščino prevedeni inačici vprašalnika: The Sex Education and Knowledge about Homosexuality, v slovenščini Vprašalnik o spolni vzgoji in znanju glede homoseksualnosti (Cronbach α = 0,97) in The Attitudes towards Homosexuals, v slovenščini. Vprašalnik o stališčih do homoseksualnosti (Cronbach α = 0,95). Sodelovalo je 70 študentov dodiplomskega študijskega programa Zdravstvena nega. Zbiranje podatkov je potekalo s pomočjo spletnega vprašalnika od junija do avgusta 2018. Podatki so bili analizirani z deskriptivno statistiko, Mann Whitneyevim U-testom, Kruskal Wallisovim H-testom, linearno regresijo in testom hi-kvadrat. Upoštevana stopnja statistične značilnosti je bila 0,05.
Rezultati: Študenti izkazujejo nezadostno znanje o homoseksualnosti, saj so le na 6 vprašanj od 32 odgovorili pravilno. Ugotovitve kažejo, da pozitivno stališče do homoseksualnosti izražajo moški anketiranci (p < 0,05), študenti iz starostne skupine od 28 do 37 let, poročeni študenti, študenti katoliške vere in študenti 3. letnika. Vendar pri omenjenih  spremenljivkah razlike v stališčih med študenti niso statistično značilne (p ≥ 0,05).
Diskusija in zaključek: Raziskava je pokazala, da študentom zdravstvene nege primanjkuje znanja o homoseksualnosti ter da imajo do nje negativen odnos. Da bi dosegli enakopravno obravnavo za vse paciente, so v izobraževanju za zdravstveno nego potrebne spremembe – vključitev vsebin, povezanih s kulturnimi kompetencami.

Prenosi

Podatki o prenosih še niso na voljo.

Biografije avtorja

Danijela Šavli

dipl. m. s

Sabina Ličen, Univerza na Primorskem, Fakulteta za vede o zdravju, Polje 42, 6310 Izola, Slovenija

doc. dr., dipl. m. s., mag. zdr. neg.

Literatura

Alderson, K.G., Orzeck, T.L., & McEwen, S.C., 2009. Alberta high school counsellors' knowledge of homosexuality and their attitudes yoward gay males. Canadian Journal of Education, 32(1), pp. 87–117.

Baiocco, R., Fontanesi, L., Santamaria, F., Ioverno, S., Baumgartner, E., & Laghi, F., 2016. Coming out during adolescence: perceived parents' reactions and internalized sexual stigma. Journal of Health Psychology, 21(8), pp. 1809–1813. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105314564019 PMid:25538141

Banwari, G., Mistry, K., Soni, A., Parikh, N., & Gandhi, H., 2015. Medical students and interns' knowledge about and attitude towards homosexuality. Journal of Postgraduate Medicine, 61(2), pp. 95–100. https://doi.org/10.4103/0022-3859.153103 PMid:25766341; PMCid:PMC4943442

Bostanci Daştan, N., 2015. The attitudes of nursing students towards lesbians and gay males in Turkey. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 21(4), pp. 376–382. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijn.12294 PMid:24750248

Campinha-Bacote, J., 2002. The process of cultural competence in the delivery of healthcare services: a model of care. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 13(3), pp. 181–184. https://doi.org/10.1177/10459602013003003 PMid:12113146

Chapman, R., Wardrop, J., Freeman, P., Zappia, T., Watkins, R., & Shields, L., 2012. A descriptive study of the experiences of lesbian, gay and transgender parents accessing health services for their children. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 21(7/8), pp. 1128–1135. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2702.2011.03939.x PMid:22288982

Christensen, M., 2005. Homophobia in nursing: a concept analysis. Nursing Forum, 40(2), pp. 60–71. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6198.2005.00010.x PMid:16053506

Clark, F., 2014. Discrimination against LGBT people triggers health concerns. The Lancet, 383(9916), pp. 500–502. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60169-0

Corbière, M., Samson, E., Villotti, P., & Pelletier, J.-F., 2012. Strategies to fight stigma toward people with mental disorders: perspectives from different stakeholders. The Scientific World Journal, art. ID 516358. https://doi.org/10.1100/2012/516358 PMid:23093913; PMCid:PMC3475300

Cornelius, J., & Carrick, J., 2015. A survey of nursing students'knowledge of and attitudes toward LGBT health care concerns. Nursing Education Perspectives, 36(3), pp.176–178. https://doi.org/10.5480/13-1223

Darnell, L.K., & Hickson, S. V., 2015. Cultural competent patient-centered nursing care. The Nursing Clinics of North America, 50(1), pp. 99–108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cnur.2014.10.008 PMid:25680490

Della Pelle, C., Cerratti, F., Di Giovanni, P., Cipollone, F., & Cicolini, G., 2018. Attitudes towards and knowledge about lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender patients among Italian nurses: an observational study. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 50(4), pp. 367–374. https://doi.org/10.1111/jnu.12388 PMid:29689129

Dunjić-Kostić, B., Pantović, M., Vuković, V., Randjelović, D., Totić-Poznanović, S., Damjanović, A., et al., 2012. Knowledge: a possible tool in shaping medical professionals' attitudes towards homosexuality. Psychiatria Danubina, 24(2), pp. 143–151.

Eliason, M.J., Dibble, S., & Dejoseph, J., 2010. Nursing's silence on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender issues: the need for emancipatory efforts. ANS. Advances in Nursing Science, 33(3), pp. 206–218. https://doi.org/10.1097/ANS.0b013e3181e63e49 PMid:20520521

Field, A., 2013. Discovering statistics using SPSS. 3rd ed. Sage Publications, pp. 675.

Generalna skupščina zadruženih narodov, 1948. Splošna deklaracija človekovih pravic. Available at: http://www.mzz.gov.si/fileadmin/pageuploads/Zunanja_politika/Clovekove_pravice/Zbornik/SPLOSNA_DEKLARACIJA_O_CLOVEKOVIH_PRAVICAH.pdf [8. 8. 2018].

Grabovac, I., Abramović, M., Komlenović, G., Milosević, M., & Mustajbegović, J., 2014. Attitudes towards and knowledge about homosexuality among medical students in Zagreb. Collegium Antropologicum, 38(1), pp. 39–45.

Halbwachs, H.K., 2014. Multikulturalizem v zdravstveni negi. In: A. Kvas, S. Đurđa, P. Požun, G. Lokajner & R. Kobentar, eds. Prenos informacij v zdravstveni in babiški negi. Ljubljana: Društvo medicinskih sester, babic in zdravstvenih tehnikov, pp. 45–54.

Harris, M.B., Nightengale, J. & Owen, N., 1995. Health care professionals' experience, knowledge, and attitudes concerning homosexuality. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services, 2(2), pp. 91–108. https://doi.org/10.1300/J041v02n02_06

Herek, G. M., 1988. Heterosexuals' attitudes toward lesbians and gay men: correlates and gender differences. The Journal of Sex Research, 25(4), pp. 451–477. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224498809551476

Hou, S.-Y., Pan, S.-M., Ko, N.-Y., Liu, H.-C., Wu, S.-J., Yang, W.-C., et al., 2006. Correlates of attitudes toward homosexuality and intention to care for homosexual people among psychiatric nurses in Southern Taiwan. The Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences, 22(8), pp. 390–397. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224498809551476

Kodeks etike v zdravstveni negi in oskrbi Slovenije, 2014. Ljubljana: Zbornica zdravstvene in babiške nege Slovenije – Zveza strokovnih društev medicinskih sester, babic in zdravstvenih tehnikov Slovenije.

Kuhar, R., 2001. Mi, drugi: oblikovanje in razkritje homoseksualne identitete. Ljubljana: Škuc, p. 227.

Ličen, S., Karnjuš, I. & Prosen, M., 2017. Ensuring equality through the acquisition of cultural competencies in nursing education: a literature review. In: A. Petelin, N. Šarabon, B. Žvanut & M. Prosen, eds. Zdavje delovno aktivne populacije: 4. Znanstvena in strokovna konferenca z mednarodno udeležbo, Izola, 22. september 2017. Koper: Založba Univerze na Primorskem, pp. 79–74. https://doi.org/10.26493/978-961-7023-32-9.113-121

Lopes, L., Gato, J., & Esteves, M., 2016. Portuguese medical students' knowledge and attitudes towards homosexuality. Acta Medica Portuguesa, 29(11), pp. 684–693. https://doi.org/10.20344/amp.8009 PMid:28229833

Loredan, I. & Prosen, M., 2013. Kulturne kompetence medicinskih sester in babic. Obzornik Zdravstvene Nege, 47(1), pp. 83-89. Available at: https://obzornik.zbornica-zveza.si/index.php/ObzorZdravNeg/article/view/2916 [8. 8. 2019].

Makadon, H.J., 2011. Ending LGBT invisibility in health care: the first step in ensuring equitable care. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, 78(4), pp. 220–224. https://doi.org/10.3949/ccjm.78gr.10006 PMid:21460126

Meyer, I.H., 2013. Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: conceptual issues and research evidence. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 1(S), pp. 3–26. https://doi.org/10.1037/2329-382.1.S.3

Morrison, M.A. & Morrison, T.G., 2002. Development and validation of a scale measuring modern prejudice toward gay men and lesbian women. Journal of Homosexuality, 43(2), pp. 15–37. https://doi.org/10.1300/J082v43n02_02

Prosen, M., Karnjuš, I., & Ličen, S., 2017. Razvijanje medkulturnih kompetenc med študenti zdravstvene nege. In: S. Rutar, S. Čotar Konrad, T. Štemberger, S. Bratož, A. Ježovnik, et al., eds.. Vidiki internacionalizacije in kakovosti v visokem šolstvu. Koper: Založba Univerze na Primorskem, pp. 199–221.

Rowniak, S.R., 2015. Factors related to homophobia among nursing students. Journal of Homosexuality, 62(9), pp. 1228–1240. https://doi.org/10.1080/00918369.2015.1037135 PMid:25894848

Ryan, M., Carlton, K.H., & Ali, N., 2000. Transcultural nursing concepts and experiences in nursing curricula. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 11(4), pp. 300–307. https://doi.org/10.1177/104365960001100408 PMid:11982039

Singleton, J.K., 2017. An enhanced cultural competence curriculum and changes in transcultural self-efficacy in Doctor of Nursing practice students. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 28(5), pp. 516–522. https://doi.org/10.1177/104365960001100408 PMid:11982039

Sirota, T., 2013. Attitudes among nurse educators toward homosexuality. The Journal of Nursing Education, 52(4), pp. 219–227. https://doi.org/10.3928/01484834-20130320-01 PMid:23506172

Smith, D.M. & Mathews, W.C., 2007. Physicians' attitudes toward homosexuality and HIV. Journal of Homosexuality, 52(3–4), pp. 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1300/J082v52n03_01 PMid:17594969

Spinks, V.S., Andrews, J. & Boyle, J.S., 2000. Providing health care for lesbian clients. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 11(2), pp. 137–143. https://doi.org/10.1177/104365960001100208 PMid:11982046

Srivastava, S. & Singh, P., 2015. Psychosocial roots of stigma of homosexuality and its impact on the lives of sexual minorities in India. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 3(1), pp. 128–136. https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2015.38015

Švab, A. & Kuhar, R., 2005. Neznosno udobje zasebnosti. Vsakdanje življenje gejev in lezbijk. Ljubljana: Mirovni inštitut, pp. 28-30.

Wells, J.W. & Franken, M.L., 1987. University students'knowledge about and attitudes toward homosexuality. The Journal of Humanistic Education and Development, 26(2), pp. 81–95. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2164-4683.1987.tb00316.x

World Medical Association, 2013. World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. Journal of the American Medical Association, 310(20), pp. 2191–2194. Available at: http://www.wma.net/en/20activities/10ethics/10helsinki/DoH-Oct2013-JAMA.pdf [1. 9. 2016].

Yen, C.-F., Pan, S.-M., Hou, S.-Y., Liu, H.-C., Wu, S.-J., Yang, W.-C., et al., 2007. Attitudes toward gay men and lesbians and related factors among nurses in Southern Taiwan. Public Health, 121(1), pp. 73–79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2006.08.013 PMid:17166534

Objavljeno
2019-12-16
Kako citirati
Šavli, D. in Ličen, S. (2019) Perspektiva študentov zdravstvene nege do istospolno usmerjenih, Obzornik zdravstvene nege, 53(4), str. 309-319. doi: 10.14528/snr.2019.53.4.2976.
Rubrike
Izvirni znanstveni članek